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APOLOGIZES, THIS IS NOT A COMPREHENSIVE LIST, AND IS IN THE PROCESS OF BEING EDITED, BUT THERE IS MORE THAN ENOUGH FOR THE POINT TO BE MADE. (It seems I have only searched for one form of the word, and many other forms of it exist)
Just to remind the readers; in a previous post we asked the question: “Does Worship actually mean Worship in the New Testament?”
Now we will approach this question from a different angle by examining every occurrence of this Greek word, Proskuneó/ προσκυνέω(G4352) in the LXX (Septuagint, the Greek Old Testament) and the New Testament.
Below I have BLUED all occurrences of the word where it is applied in the context of praising/bowing/reverence etc; and I have REDED all occurrences of the word where it actually means WORSHIP; as in the English sense of Worshiping something/someone like God, whether it be actually God, or false gods.
I have also GREENED instances where it refers to Jesus , as to be fair to our Christian readers and not impose my theological leanings from the get-go.
I will now summarize my research/conclusion here (so you don’t have to scroll all the way down 🙂
Let us recall that THIS WHOLE EXERCISE, is being done to address the argument that “Jesus is God, because he was worshiped“. If we are to assume that all occurrences of the word, Proskuneó/ προσκυνέω(G4352), must imply WORSHIP and not general reverence , then we would have no choice but to believe in the following:
FROM THE LXX
Genesis 33:6 -Esau is God.
Genesis 33:7-Esau is God.
–Genesis 37:7-Sheaf is God.
Genesis 42:6 -Joseph is God.
Genesis 43:28 -Joseph is God.
Genesis 48:12- Jacob is God
1 Chronicles 29:20 -David and God are being worshipped at the SAME TIME.
–2 Chronicles 24:17- King Joash is God.
THEN THE NT:
Rev 3:9- Christians are God.
In conclusion, the argument that “Jesus is God because he is accepting Worship” can not be used as a proof of his so-called divinity. If so , you have opened up the trinity to a pantheon of gods. Now you may argue that most of these instances are from the LXX. Fine, however JUST ONE instance from Rev 3:9 is good enough to show that you can not apply the meaning of ACTUAL WORSHIP universally. If you did, then you would have to agree that God is going to make the Jews WORSHIP the Christians as God.
And so ends a long strenuous exercise in examining the word , Proskuneó/ προσκυνέω(G4352) within in the LXX and the NT.
Daniel B.Wallace announced ( 22 MARCH 2012) in a debate with Bart Ehrman, that he had access to a fragment of Mark from the first-century; making it even older than P52 from the second century (which is the size of a credit-card). This announcement even made it’s way into Forbes magazine.
It is interesting to note that in that article, Wallace claims that :
…..radiocarbon dating has not been employed for Greek manuscripts to any significant degree, “largely because until recently it would necessarily destroy part of the manuscript.”
We have already examined this issue of radiocarbon-dating vs paleography. How is it possible for a manuscript of the Qur’an to be radiocarbon dated, and not the Bible?
But keeping all that aside, lets get back to the main question: WHERE IS THIS FIRST CENTURY MARK?
Several significant studies of literacy have appeared in recent years showing just how low literacy rates were in antiquity. The most frequently cited study is by Columbia professor William Harris in a book titled Ancient Literacy. By thoroughly examining all the surviving evidence, Harris draws the compelling though surprising conclusion that in the very best of times in the ancient world, only about 10 percent of the population could read at all and possibly copy out writing on a page. Far fewer than this, of course, could compose a sentence, let alone a story, let alone an entire book. And who were the people in this 10 percent? They were the upper-class elite who had the time, money, and leisure to afford an education. This is not an apt description of Jesus’s disciples. They were not upper-crust aristocrats.
In Roman Palestine the situation was even bleaker. The most thorough examination of literacy in Palestine is by a professor of Jewish studies at the University of London, Catherine Hezser, who shows that in the days of Jesus probably only 3 percent of Jews in Palestine were literate. Once again, these would be the people who could read and maybe write their names and copy words. Far fewer could compose sentences, paragraphs, chapters, and books. And once again, these would have been the urban elites.
Source: Ehrman, Bart D. (2012-03-20). Did Jesus Exist?: The Historical Argument for Jesus of Nazareth (Kindle Locations 702-712). Harper Collins, Inc.. Kindle Edition.
As Muslims we have the Qur’an verbatim from the Prophet(saw), he recited in Arabic and we recite in Arabic. word for word, letter for letter, dot for dot.
But can the same be said about Christianity? Basically we have a text which was originally supposed to be in Aramaic ( a sister language to Arabic) being written in Koine Greek (dead language which only a few know) translated into Latin and then FINALLY translated again into English, where it finds its common usage today.
Is it possible something could have been lost in translation?
P52 vs Birmingham Manuscript (Comparing the Earliest Biblical Manuscript to the Earliest Qur’anic Manuscript )
P52: 125-175 CE (Dated using paleography and NOT radiocarbon dating) . This is the oldest, no manuscript is seen from the lifetime of Jesus or even the first century.
Birmingham: Between c. 568 and 645 using Radiocarbon dating( A more accurate method to date than paleography) . This could very well mean during the time of the Prophet, if not the early first century following his death.
P52: Credit Card Sized (measuring only 3.5 by 2.5 inches (8.9 by 6 cm) at its widest; and conserved). The oldest manuscript is nothing but a scrap of paper.
Birmingham: folio size (343mm by 258mm at the widest point) and are written on both sides . One two-page leaf contains verses 17–31 of Surah 18 (Al-Kahf) while the other leaf the final eight verses 91–98 of Surah 19 (Maryam) and the first 40 verses of Surah 20 (Ta-Ha), all in their present day sequence and conforming to the standard text.
Taken from here: http://www.patheos.com/blogs/crossexamined/2013/11/25000-new-testament-manuscripts-big-deal/
Consider the claim of 25,000 manuscripts. The originals of every New Testament book were written in Greek, but three-quarters of these manuscripts are translations into other languages. We can avoid the extra layer of interpretation imposed by a translation by focusing on just the 5800 Greek manuscripts.
Now consider when these manuscripts were written.
This chart shows the number of Greek manuscript copies by century. (The data is from Wikipedia, with manuscripts categorized on the cusp of two centuries put into the earlier century.) We have zero manuscripts from the first century and eight from the second. The twelfth century has the most, with 1090 manuscripts. The printing press was invented in the middle of the fifteenth century, which explains much of the drop on the right of the chart.
Taken from here: http://www.revisedenglishversion.com/Matthew/chapter28/19
“in my name.” We have translated the text according to the evidence we have that there were early Greek texts that read that way, and also according to what the Apostles did in Acts. They made disciples in the name of Jesus. We admit that there is no extant Greek text that says “go and make disciples of all the nations in my name,” they all read “baptizing them in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the holy spirit.” Nevertheless, we believe that the historical evidence, as well as the evidence in the Bible itself, supports the conclusion that the common rendering is a very early addition to the text, and the original reading was “in my name.” We give the following evidence to support our conclusion:
The Greek word προσκυνέω( its English transliteration being proskyneō [looks similar to the word prostrate]) has been translated as ‘worship’ throughout the whole New Testament, except for one particular instance:
Rev 3:9 (English Standard Version)
Behold, I will make those of the synagogue of Satan who say that they are Jews and are not, but lie—behold, I will make them come and bow down before your feet, and they will learn that I have loved you.
Most newer translations have exchanged the Greek word for ‘worship’ for the English phrase of ‘bowing down’. Older translations have maintained the Greek word for ‘worship’ as the English word for ‘worship’:
Rev 3:9 (King James Bible)
Behold, I will make them of the synagogue of Satan, which say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie; behold, I will make them to come and worship before thy feet, and to know that I have loved thee.
Why this Change?
The older translations falsely imply that God wants the corrupt Jews to worship the Church of Philadelphia. So according to the older translations, the pantheon of God not only extends to the existing trinity but also to a whole church, which Christians would obviously deny.
Two questions arise from this controversy: