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Every Occurrence of Proskuneó-προσκυνέω in the LXX (Greek Old Testament) and the New Testament

APOLOGIZES, THIS IS NOT A COMPREHENSIVE LIST, AND IS IN THE PROCESS OF BEING EDITED, BUT THERE IS MORE THAN ENOUGH FOR THE POINT TO BE MADE. (It seems I have only searched for one form of the word, and many other forms of it exist)


Just to remind the readers; in a previous post we asked the question: “Does Worship actually mean Worship in the New Testament?”

Now we will approach this question from a different angle by examining every occurrence of this Greek word, Proskuneó/ προσκυνέω(G4352) in the LXX (Septuagint, the Greek Old Testament)  and the New Testament.

Below I have BLUED  all occurrences of the word where it is applied in the context of praising/bowing/reverence etc; and I have REDED all occurrences of the word where it actually means WORSHIP; as in the English sense of Worshiping something/someone like God, whether it be actually God, or false gods.

I have also GREENED instances where it refers to Jesus , as to be fair to our Christian readers and not impose my theological leanings from the get-go.

I will now summarize my research/conclusion here (so you don’t have to scroll all the way down 🙂

Let us recall that THIS WHOLE EXERCISE, is being done to address the argument that “Jesus is God, because he was worshiped“. If we are to assume that all occurrences of the word, Proskuneó/ προσκυνέω(G4352), must imply WORSHIP and not general reverence , then we would have no choice but to believe in the following:

FROM THE LXX

Genesis 33:6 -Esau is God.

Genesis 33:7-Esau is God.

Genesis 37:7-Sheaf is God.

Genesis 42:6 -Joseph is God.

Genesis 43:28 -Joseph is God.

Genesis 48:12- Jacob is God

1 Chronicles 29:20 -David and God are being worshipped at the SAME TIME.

2 Chronicles 24:17- King Joash  is God.

THEN THE NT:

Rev 3:9- Christians are God.

In conclusion, the argument that “Jesus is God because he is accepting Worship” can not be used as a proof of his so-called divinity.  If so , you have opened up the trinity to a pantheon of gods. Now you may argue that most of these instances are from the LXX. Fine, however JUST ONE instance from Rev 3:9 is good enough to show that you can not apply the meaning of ACTUAL WORSHIP universally. If you did, then you would have to agree that God is going to make the Jews WORSHIP the Christians as God.

And so ends a long strenuous exercise in examining the word , Proskuneó/ προσκυνέω(G4352) within in the LXX and the NT.

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Does Worship actually mean Worship in the New Testament?

The Greek word προσκυνέω( its English transliteration being  proskyneō [looks similar to the word prostrate]) has been translated as ‘worship’ throughout the whole New Testament, except for one particular instance:

Rev 3:9 (English Standard Version)
Behold, I will make those of the synagogue of Satan who say that they are Jews and are not, but lie—behold, I will make them come and bow down before your feet, and they will learn that I have loved you.

Most newer translations have exchanged the Greek word for ‘worship’ for the English phrase  of ‘bowing down’. Older translations have maintained the Greek word for ‘worship’ as the English word for  ‘worship’:

Rev 3:9 (King James Bible)
Behold, I will make them of the synagogue of Satan, which say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie; behold, I will make them to come and worship before thy feet, and to know that I have loved thee.

Why this Change? 

The older translations falsely imply that God wants the corrupt Jews to worship the Church of Philadelphia.  So according to the older translations, the pantheon of God not only extends to the existing trinity but also to a whole church, which Christians would obviously deny.

Two questions arise from this controversy:

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